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Key to Monitoring-Modeling-Emissions Mapping
August 2008
Name Compound  IMPROVE Species  CMAQ Mapping  CAMx Mapping Emissions Mapping Notes
Sulfate SO4  3*S (sulfur) or SO4  ASO4J + ASO4I  PSO4 PSO4 IMPROVE derives from module A.  IMPROVE uses SO4 measurement from module B if S measurement missing.
Ammonium Sulfate ammSO4 1.375*SO4 can be applied can be applied n/a  
Sulfur Dioxide SO2 n/a SO2 SO2 SO2 IMPROVE monitoring has provision to measure SO2 but does not at most sites.
Sulfuric Acid H2SO4 n/a SULF SULF SULF  
Sulfur Oxides SOX n/a n/a n/a SOX = SO2 (64/96)*PSO4 + (64/65)*SULF SOX is not modeled directly.
Nitrate NO3  NO3  ANO3J + ANO3I  PNO3 PNO3 IMPROVE derives from module B.
Ammonium Nitrate ammNO3 1.29*NO3 can be applied can be applied n/a  
Nitrous Oxide NO n/a NO NO NO  
Nitrogen Dioxide NO2 n/a NO2 NO2 NO2  
Nitrogen Oxides NOX n/a n/a n/a NOX = NO2 + (48/30)*NO NOX is not modeled directly.
Nitric Acid HNO3 n/a HNO3 HNO3 HNO3  
Ammonia NH3 n/a NH3 NH3 NH3 IMPROVE inlet denuder removes NH3.
Ammonium NH4 Infered from SO4 and NO3 ANH4J + ANH4I PNH4 n/a Infered from SO4 and NO3 measurements.
Organic Carbon OC  OC1 + OC2 + OC3 + OC4 + OP n/a n/a n/a IMPROVE derives from module C.  CMAQ and CAMx output Organic Mass directly.
Organic Mass
(Particulate Organic Matter)
OM or OMC
(POM)
1.8*OC AORGAJ + AORGAI + AORGPAJ + AORGPAI + AORGBJ + AORGBI POA + SOA1 + SOA2 + SOA3 + SOA4 + SOA5 n/a  
Primary Organic Aerosol POA n/a AORGPAJ + AORGPAI POA POA POA represents organic carbon compounds emitted directly as particulates, but not secondary organics which condense from emitted VOCs.
Volatile Organic Compounds VOC n/a Depends on chemical mechanism => speciated VOCs Depends on chemical mechanism => speciated VOCs VOC VOCs can condense to form particulate organic compounds which contribute to OM.
Carbon Monoxide CO n/a CO CO CO  
Elemental Carbon EC  EC1 + EC2 + EC3 - OP  AECJ + AECI  PEC PEC IMPROVE derives from module C.
Soil (fine) SOIL  2.2*Al + 2.49*Si + 1.63*Ca + 2.42*Fe + 1.94*Ti  A25I + A25J  FCRS + FPRM Fine Fugitive dust (Windblown dust, Road dust, Fugitive dust)  IMPROVE derives from module A.
Sea Salt SS 1.8*Chl (Chloride) n/a n/a n/a IMPROVE derives from module B.  IMPROVE uses Chlorine measurement from module A if Chloride not available or below MDL.  Emissions inventories and models do not contain/track chloride.
Coarse Particulate Matter  CM  MT – FM  ACORS + ASEAS + ASOIL  CCRS + CPRM PMC IMPROVE derives from modules A & D.
Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 FM  (ASO4J + ASO4I) + (ANO3J + ANO3I) + (ANH4J + ANH4I) + (AORGAJ + AORGAI + AORGPAJ + AORGPAI + AORGBJ + AORGBI) + (AECJ + AECI) + (A25J + A25I) PSO4 + PNO3 + PNH4 + (POA + SOA1 + SOA2 + SOA3 + SOA4 + SOA5) + PEC + FCRS + FPRM PMFINE IMPROVE derives from module A.
Total Particulate Matter PM10  MT  PM2.5 + CM PM2.5 + CM PMFINE + PMC IMPROVE derives from module D.
Total Extinction Bext 2.2*fs(RH)*(Small Sulfate) + 4.8*fl(RH)*(Large Sulfate) + 2.4*fs(RH)*(Small Nitrate) + 5.1*fl(RH)*(Large Nitrate) + 2.8*fs(RH)*(Small Organic Mass) + 6.1*fl(RH)*(Large Organic Mass) + 10*EC + SOIL + 1.7*fss(RH)*(Sea Salt) + 0.6*CM + Rayleigh (site specific) can be applied can be applied n/a This is the new IMPROVE algorithm.
Large Sulfate Large Sulfate =(ammSO4)*(ammSO4)/20
for ammSO4 < 20 ug/m3

=(ammSO4)
for ammSO4 >= 20 ug/m3
can be applied can be applied n/a Allows the use of variable extinction efficiences.
Small Sulfate Small Sulfate =ammSO4 - Large Sulfate can be applied can be applied n/a Allows the use of variable extinction efficiences.
Large Nitrate Large Nitrate =(ammNO3)*(ammNO3)/20
for ammNO3 < 20 ug/m3

=(ammNO3)
for ammNO3 >= 20 ug/m3
can be applied can be applied n/a Allows the use of variable extinction efficiences.
Small Nitrate Small Nitrate =ammNO3 - Large Nitrate can be applied can be applied n/a Allows the use of variable extinction efficiences.
Large Organic Mass Large Organic Mass =(OM)*(OM)/20
for OM < 20 ug/m3

=(OM)
for OM >= 20 ug/m3
can be applied can be applied n/a Allows the use of variable extinction efficiences.
Small Organic Mass Small Organic Mass =OM - Large Organic Mass can be applied can be applied n/a Allows the use of variable extinction efficiences.
Relative Humidity RH RH RH RH n/a Not measured at most IMPROVE sites.
Scattering enhancement factor due to RH for small fraction fs(RH) can be applied can be applied can be applied n/a Generally applied as a monthly average.
Scattering enhancement factor due to RH for large fraction fl(RH) can be applied can be applied can be applied n/a Generally applied as a monthly average.
Scattering enhancement factor due to RH for sea salt fss(RH) can be applied can be applied can be applied n/a Generally applied as a monthly average.